Management summary 6005


  1. Management objectives

The management objectives for the forest we manage consist of long term sustainable forest management, in accordance with the forestry regime, to satisfy the social, economic and ecological requirements, expressed by the nature of the products, namely the protection of the forest or the social services the forest provides.

Given the fact that "the strategy of enhancing economic, social and environmental is an attribute of the state," according to Law 141/1999, that means that privately owned forests must be administered and managed in a single system, aimed at further enhancing the current and future ecological and socio-economic functions, to the benefit of current and next generations. In other words, the owner requirements will be correlated with the need to achieve sustainable forest management.

The main requirements of these forests’ owners are economic so, to satisfy them, the forests subject to management plans must ensure the production of timber and other specific forest products. Therefore, actual plans must include ecological measures to ensure the protection of the above objectives, but also the brush adjacent to the roads of tourist importance, the brush located on lands with high slope, with high risk of erosion and the brush for the protection of species of community importance within the Natura 2000 network, and the maintenance of biodiversity and natural and cultural values of the area.

  1. Description of the area under management

From the physic-geographical point of view (after classification of the "Geography of Romania" Volume I of 1983), the forest is located in Transylvanian Carpathians Unit (I); Eastern Carpathians (A); the central group (2); volcanic mountains Călimani - Gurghiu - Harghita (H). The forests are located mostly in the basin of the river Mureș and its tributaries.

2.1.   Size of forest

The area managed by the Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni for certification purpose is 18293.38 hectares.

  1. Physical description of the management areas

3.1.    Geological and geomorphologic aspects

Geologically, the edaphic structure of the volcanic chain, where the forest is located, is the result of a very intense eruptive activity, which took place at the end of Neogene and early Quaternary. The main rocks identified in the geological substrate are: igneous rocks, crystalline schist, granodiorites, limestone, flysch sandstone and andesite.

The area where the forests are located is part of the Eastern Carpathians geomorphological region, group of south volcanic mountains Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita.

              The fact that most forest vegetation takes place between altitude of 840 - 1200 m, in this range climatic conditions are more favorable and quite favorable, given the productivity that these stands record here.

              The main geomorphologic unit is the slope, with undulating configuration, rarely otherwise, with the following categories of inclination:

Mild inclination (16 g)

17%

Moderate (16-30 g)

81%

High (31-40 g)

2%

Total

100%

Inclination conditions are rated as good or very good, the vegetation can root easily. 

The forest exposition is mainly N - E.

Overall, these are the main exposition categories:

Sunny

19%

Partly sunny

41%

Shaded

40%

 Exposition is a very important element. One can notice that 60% of the territory benefits of sunny and partly sunny exposition, and 40% of shaded exposition.

3.2.   Climate aspects

Geographically, the managed areas fall within temperate climate, and regionally are situated in the temperate continental climate. By W. Köppen, the region falls within climatic province Df (boreal climate) with cold and humid winters, with the temperature of the coldest month - 6.8°C and the average temperature of the warmest month over 16°C with sufficient rainfall year-round.

Variations in average air temperature during the year, the annual amplitude of 22.8°C (Gheorgheni meteorological station), grade off the climate of the territory toward continental climate.

Rainfall is strongly influenced by the perpendicular direction to the volcanic mountains facing the west winds and they have a non-uniform distribution of an average rainfall between 600-700 mm annually.

Prevailing wind direction is from NE and NW sectors, but SE can occur quite frequently, especially in spring. Highest index is recorded in summer (June-August). Average annual wind speed is 3.3 m/s.

3.3.   Hydrological aspects

Abundant rainfall and low permeability andesites led to a relatively high intensity of the hydrographic network, which has values between 2-3 km/km 2.

The hydrographic network is fairly well represented, streams have permanent flow, but variable from one season to another, especially in spring and autumn. Managed area is fragmented into several basins, quite favorable to rapid concentrate the leakages in the hydrographic network.

Swamp formation phenomena are rare and occur only in small areas, so that is not a limiting factor. The hydrological regime of precipitation is predominantly percolating type (groundwater rarely influences forest vegetation) with pluvial and pluvionival intake.

3.4.   Edaphic aspects

Soils are characteristics of the mountains region were they were formed, with particularities mainly due to this region’s relief, rocks, and then due to the climate and vegetation characteristics.

Types and subtypes of soil present in the area are:

 

Crt.

Soil type and subtype

Code

Sequence of horizons

Percentage %

1

Districambosoil

typical

3301

Ao-Bv-C

less than 1

lithic

3305

Ao-Bv-R 
Ao-BvR-C

-

gleyed

3306

Ao-Bv-Cgo
Ao-BvGo-CGR

-

Total districambosoil

95

2

Prepodzol

lithic

4102

Auo-Bs -R

4

3

Rendzina

lithic

1703

Am-AR-Rrz

less than 1

TOTAL

100

The most common soils are typical districambosoil, with typical, lithic and gleyed subtypes. Districambosoils represent 95% of all soils, and prepodzols and rendzina only 5%.

3.5.   Site types

The sites identified in these forests belong to two phytoclimatic stores, namely: 
              - mountain spruce forest storey (FM3) ........ 68%

              - Mixed mountain forest storey (FM2) ....... 32%

Regarding site quality, situation is as follows:

              - Upper quality sites ......... 72%;

              - Middle quality sites ............ 27%;

              - Lower quality sites ........... 1%;

3.6.   Characteristics of the managed area

3.6.1.      Forest formations and forest types

              Pure spruce forest (FM3) – this kind of forest has a relatively simple structure, being composed almost entirely of spruce, rarely associated with European mountain ash, birch, sycamore, wych elm, sometimes fir or beech. There is no shrub, or is represented by rare specimens of honeysuckle, elm leaved spiraea, currant bush. The groundcover is poorly developed, with just a few seed plants: Oxalis acetosella, Soldanella hungarica, Hieracium transilvanicum, Vaccinium myrtillus, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. In many spruce forests, mosses are present, forming a more or less continious cover: Hylocomium, Rhytidiadelphus, Dicranum. Biomass production varies between 3-6 t/year/ha, depending on soil troficity and biotypes thermicity. The wood acumulation represents 2-5 t/year/ha.

ood.

Mixtures of spruce-fir-beech (FM2) - together with fir forests, they make up a distinct zonal strip. The edifying species is beech, which is associated in most varied proportions only with fir or spruce, or with both species. The shrub layer is missing, or is poorly developed, being composed of hazelnut, elder, scarlet elder, honeysuckle. The groundcover is composed of species characteristic to mull flora, like Salvia glutinosa, Cardamine glanduligera, Pulmonaria rubra, Allium ursinum, Rubus hirtus, Festuca altissima, Luzula luzuloides, and Vaccinium ssp.

The biomass production is about 9 t/year/ha.

3.6.2.      The quality and vegetation condition of the stands

According to the regulations, the action of cleaning of forests is organized and carried out as to constantly ensure appropriate phytosanitary condition.

It is required as a mandatory permanent task the organization and removal of all wood materials that could adversely affect the phytosanitary condition of the forest.

3.6.3.      Forest composition

The stand, as a storey of trees, represents the predominant feature of the forest as biosystem and is the main objective in conducting the forests toward maximum efficiency.

The most widespread forest formation is the pure spruce stand (Piceetea), followed by spruce-beech forests (Piceeto-Fageta).

Regarding the composition of the stands, the distribution is as follows:

83Mo7Br9 F a1Div.

3.6.4.      Structure by age class

Age class structure:

The area occupied

Age class

TOTAL

I

II - IV

V

VI

VII

1-20

21-80

81-100

101-120

> 120

Ha

1280.53

8597.88

5670.94

2561.07

182.96

18293.38

%

7

47

31

14

1

100

 

3.7.   Basis of forest management

3.7.1.      Regime

Taking into account the economical objectives, the current condition and structure, the stands are managed according to the high-forest system, which ensures the regeneration of the forests, both natural (seeds) and artificial (actual afforestation), given the majority species and the existent stationary conditions

3.7.2.      Treatment

Based on the existing formations and the functional type, the following treatments for production stands can be set:

-       clear cutting in small plots and clear cutting in alternative strips for spruce forests

-       group shelterwood system, in mixes of spruce and fir, where regeneration period lasts 20 to 30 years

-       conservation cutting and sanitary cutting, practiced in protection stands

3.7.3.      Exploitability

Technical exploitability was adopted for production stands, this ensuring the achievement of large wood assortments.

The age for technical exploitability is achieved around 105 years.

For stands of group I, exploitability for protection was adopted, which corresponds to the moment when the protective effects start to decline.

3.7.4.      Production cycles

Production cycles are set only for the stands with production functions, taking into account:

-       the formations and forestry species that form the forest;

-       average age of technical exploitability;

-       productivity and the current state of mixtures;

-       the socio-economic functions set.

Based on the above criteria, a cycle of 110 years is considered appropriate, both economically and environmentally.

3.7.5.      Allowable cut

All surfaces managed have active management arrangements, and based on these management plans, the forest owners of Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni have a harvest index of main products of approx. 5 m3/year/ha,  and a harvest index of secondary products of approx. 1 m3/year/ha.

  1. Description of the areas excluded from harvesting

According to the socio-economic and environmental objectives mentioned above, the stand functions are set, in accordance with the technical norms in force.

Stands in the area managed mainly have the following types of functional category:

a)      Forests with special protection functions located in sites with harsh ecological conditions, and stands where wood harvesting is not possible or allowed, imposing only special conservation works (T II) - approx. 5% of the total area managed subject to FSC certification

b)      Forests with special protection functions where is permitted, in addition to selection system, other treatments, imposing some special restrictions (T IV)

c)      Forests with production and protection functions, where the whole range of forestry operations can be applied (T VI)

To achieve the established objectives, the stands must be managed by applying appropriate management measures. For this, two management units were formed, namely:

- SUP "A" - Regular high forest - common types (wood and construction timber);

- SUP "M" - Special Conservation (conservation goals).

 

Map of the forests in the protected areas category, excluded from commercial cuts representing 5% of the certified forest area

 

.................................................. .........

 

 

 

Map of the forests with biodiversity conservation as a major objective representing 10% of the certified forest area

 

.................................................. ...................

 


              Most trees stands are part of the functional group II (forests with production and protection functions), but through management plans increased attention was given to the inclusion of the stands also in functional group I (forests with special protection functions).

 

  1. Timber resource inventory on which harvesting is planned on

The managed areas contain pure stands (mostly spruce) and mixed spruce stands (with beech, fir, sycamore, etc.).

Depending on the composition of the stands, the amount of wood accumulating in a given area varies.

Given the stationary conditions, the average age of the species, average production class, etc., the following average amounts of wood can be define per hectare by species:

              - Spruce: 458 m³/ha,

              - Beech: 271 m³/ha,

              - Fir: 569 m³/ha,

              - Larch: 174 m³/ha,

              - Sycamore 109 m³/ha.

 

  1. Description of the land use and ownership status

 

Type of  functional class

Functional categories

Management goal

Surface

%

T II

Forests with special protection functions located in sites with harsh ecological conditions, and stands where wood harvesting is not possible or allowed, imposing only special conservation works

1.2.a

1.2.a

1.3.f

1.4.

1.5.I

Conservation goals

6

T IV

Forests with special protection functions where is permitted, in addition to selection system, other treatments, imposing some special restrictions

1.5.M

Wood and  construction timber

52

T VI

Forests with production and protection functions, where the whole range of forestry operations can be applied

2.1.b

Wood and  construction timber

42

TOTAL

-

-

100

 

 

for crops

Crt.

Symbol

Use Category forest

Surface (%)

 

 
   

1

P

Total forest fund

100

 

 

1.1

PD

Land covered by forest

99

 

 

1.2

PC

Lands that are

 

needed

-

 

 

1.3

PS

Lands that are needed for forest production

< 1%

   

1.4

PA

Land serving the needs of forest administration

< 1%

 

 

1.5

PI

Land affected by afforestation

< 1%

 

 

1.6

PN

Unproductive lands

< 1%

 

 

1.7

PT

Land temporarily removed from the forest and not received

-

 

 

1.8

PO

Occupations and litigation

-

 

 

 

From the table above, it appears that over 99% of forest area is covered by forest. In this context one can speak of an efficient use of the forest.

Regarding the ownership status, the forest areas belong to private legal persons, associative forms, territorial-administrative units, religious and educational establishments.

 

  1. Description of adjacent land use

Adjacent lands, surrounding the forest areas have the following use:

-       Land covered by forest

-       Pasture lands or afforested pasture lands

-       Meadows and other agricultural lands

 

  1. Management prescriptions and procedures

Responsible stands management will be achieved by execution of the forestry operations, sanitary cutting, properly applied. The main aim of the management works is the maintenance of the functional capacity of these stands.

Forestry works encompass a wide range of works, from creating valuable cores of value species regeneration, by maintaining and managing newly established stands, by extracting trees affected by biotic or abiotic factors, by applying treatments where mature stand will be extracted. All are essential to be applied at the right time and appropriately for sustainable forest management in the long term.

To achieve stands stability and better conditions in relation to the aims pursued optimal solution must be adopted in relation to the development phases of the stands.

Natural conditions and socio-economic requirements impose that stands be driven to diversified structures, relatively even aged trees and relatively uneven aged trees, as close to natural ones, capable of performing multiple functions of protection and production.

 

  1. Harvest rate and species selection

            Stands which are to be harvested in the first 10 years are: pure spruce stands (56%), mixed coniferous and beech stands (14%), mixtures of spruce-beech stands (14%), spruce-fir stands (8%) and pure mountain beech forests (8%). Harvesting will be done by progressive cutting, conservation cuttings, and clear cuttings on small plots or adjacent bands.

Main product harvesting rates by species (representative species) per year compared to the area are:

- Spruce: approx. 28 m3/year/ha,

- Beech: approx. 3.5 m3/year/ha,

- Fir: approx. 2.3 m3/year/ha,

- Larch: less than 1 m3/year/ha,

- Pine: less than 1 m3/year/ha.

 

  1. Procedures for monitoring forest regeneration and growth

Biomass accumulation of the forest is greatly influenced by the stationary conditions, weather factors, and also by the development stages of the stands. Considering these factors, on the land managed by the Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni there were set the following growth indicators, for the most representative species:

              - Spruce: 5.3 m3/year/ha,

              - Beech: 3.5 m3/year/ha,

              - Fir: 6, 2 m3/year/ha,

              - Larch: 5.8 m3/year/ha,

              - Sycamore: 2.7 m3/year/ha.

 

  1. Environmental protection measures

On the areas managed by Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni, environmental measures are established in relation to the functional category of the forest or to the type of activity that takes place on that land.

Given the fact that part of land management are included in the Natura 2000 network or in other categories of protected areas, this involves a series of rules to be implemented in order to protect environment (stations, certain species, etc.).

Regarding environmental protection from various field activities the following are worth reminding:

-       during the harvesting process, the remaining standing trees are protected by applying some protective material around them. For protecting the routes for removing the trees, poles are used to margin the routes.

-       during the forestry operations (afforestation, weeding, cleaning, etc) are taken into account: proper storage of lubricants, keeping the working site clean, etc.

 

  1. Map of forestry resources and protected areas

 

 


Management summary 6005


  1. Management objectives

The management objectives for the forest we manage consist of long term sustainable forest management, in accordance with the forestry regime, to satisfy the social, economic and ecological requirements, expressed by the nature of the products, namely the protection of the forest or the social services the forest provides.

Given the fact that "the strategy of enhancing economic, social and environmental is an attribute of the state," according to Law 141/1999, that means that privately owned forests must be administered and managed in a single system, aimed at further enhancing the current and future ecological and socio-economic functions, to the benefit of current and next generations. In other words, the owner requirements will be correlated with the need to achieve sustainable forest management.

The main requirements of these forests’ owners are economic so, to satisfy them, the forests subject to management plans must ensure the production of timber and other specific forest products. Therefore, actual plans must include ecological measures to ensure the protection of the above objectives, but also the brush adjacent to the roads of tourist importance, the brush located on lands with high slope, with high risk of erosion and the brush for the protection of species of community importance within the Natura 2000 network, and the maintenance of biodiversity and natural and cultural values of the area.

  1. Description of the area under management

From the physic-geographical point of view (after classification of the "Geography of Romania" Volume I of 1983), the forest is located in Transylvanian Carpathians Unit (I); Eastern Carpathians (A); the central group (2); volcanic mountains Călimani - Gurghiu - Harghita (H). The forests are located mostly in the basin of the river Mureș and its tributaries.

2.1.   Size of forest

The area managed by the Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni for certification purpose is 18293.38 hectares.

  1. Physical description of the management areas

3.1.    Geological and geomorphologic aspects

Geologically, the edaphic structure of the volcanic chain, where the forest is located, is the result of a very intense eruptive activity, which took place at the end of Neogene and early Quaternary. The main rocks identified in the geological substrate are: igneous rocks, crystalline schist, granodiorites, limestone, flysch sandstone and andesite.

The area where the forests are located is part of the Eastern Carpathians geomorphological region, group of south volcanic mountains Călimani-Gurghiu-Harghita.

              The fact that most forest vegetation takes place between altitude of 840 - 1200 m, in this range climatic conditions are more favorable and quite favorable, given the productivity that these stands record here.

              The main geomorphologic unit is the slope, with undulating configuration, rarely otherwise, with the following categories of inclination:

Mild inclination (16 g)

17%

Moderate (16-30 g)

81%

High (31-40 g)

2%

Total

100%

Inclination conditions are rated as good or very good, the vegetation can root easily. 

The forest exposition is mainly N - E.

Overall, these are the main exposition categories:

Sunny

19%

Partly sunny

41%

Shaded

40%

 Exposition is a very important element. One can notice that 60% of the territory benefits of sunny and partly sunny exposition, and 40% of shaded exposition.

3.2.   Climate aspects

Geographically, the managed areas fall within temperate climate, and regionally are situated in the temperate continental climate. By W. Köppen, the region falls within climatic province Df (boreal climate) with cold and humid winters, with the temperature of the coldest month - 6.8°C and the average temperature of the warmest month over 16°C with sufficient rainfall year-round.

Variations in average air temperature during the year, the annual amplitude of 22.8°C (Gheorgheni meteorological station), grade off the climate of the territory toward continental climate.

Rainfall is strongly influenced by the perpendicular direction to the volcanic mountains facing the west winds and they have a non-uniform distribution of an average rainfall between 600-700 mm annually.

Prevailing wind direction is from NE and NW sectors, but SE can occur quite frequently, especially in spring. Highest index is recorded in summer (June-August). Average annual wind speed is 3.3 m/s.

3.3.   Hydrological aspects

Abundant rainfall and low permeability andesites led to a relatively high intensity of the hydrographic network, which has values between 2-3 km/km 2.

The hydrographic network is fairly well represented, streams have permanent flow, but variable from one season to another, especially in spring and autumn. Managed area is fragmented into several basins, quite favorable to rapid concentrate the leakages in the hydrographic network.

Swamp formation phenomena are rare and occur only in small areas, so that is not a limiting factor. The hydrological regime of precipitation is predominantly percolating type (groundwater rarely influences forest vegetation) with pluvial and pluvionival intake.

3.4.   Edaphic aspects

Soils are characteristics of the mountains region were they were formed, with particularities mainly due to this region’s relief, rocks, and then due to the climate and vegetation characteristics.

Types and subtypes of soil present in the area are:

 

Crt.

Soil type and subtype

Code

Sequence of horizons

Percentage %

1

Districambosoil

typical

3301

Ao-Bv-C

less than 1

lithic

3305

Ao-Bv-R 
Ao-BvR-C

-

gleyed

3306

Ao-Bv-Cgo
Ao-BvGo-CGR

-

Total districambosoil

95

2

Prepodzol

lithic

4102

Auo-Bs -R

4

3

Rendzina

lithic

1703

Am-AR-Rrz

less than 1

TOTAL

100

The most common soils are typical districambosoil, with typical, lithic and gleyed subtypes. Districambosoils represent 95% of all soils, and prepodzols and rendzina only 5%.

3.5.   Site types

The sites identified in these forests belong to two phytoclimatic stores, namely: 
              - mountain spruce forest storey (FM3) ........ 68%

              - Mixed mountain forest storey (FM2) ....... 32%

Regarding site quality, situation is as follows:

              - Upper quality sites ......... 72%;

              - Middle quality sites ............ 27%;

              - Lower quality sites ........... 1%;

3.6.   Characteristics of the managed area

3.6.1.      Forest formations and forest types

              Pure spruce forest (FM3) – this kind of forest has a relatively simple structure, being composed almost entirely of spruce, rarely associated with European mountain ash, birch, sycamore, wych elm, sometimes fir or beech. There is no shrub, or is represented by rare specimens of honeysuckle, elm leaved spiraea, currant bush. The groundcover is poorly developed, with just a few seed plants: Oxalis acetosella, Soldanella hungarica, Hieracium transilvanicum, Vaccinium myrtillus, and Vaccinium vitis-idaea. In many spruce forests, mosses are present, forming a more or less continious cover: Hylocomium, Rhytidiadelphus, Dicranum. Biomass production varies between 3-6 t/year/ha, depending on soil troficity and biotypes thermicity. The wood acumulation represents 2-5 t/year/ha.

ood.

Mixtures of spruce-fir-beech (FM2) - together with fir forests, they make up a distinct zonal strip. The edifying species is beech, which is associated in most varied proportions only with fir or spruce, or with both species. The shrub layer is missing, or is poorly developed, being composed of hazelnut, elder, scarlet elder, honeysuckle. The groundcover is composed of species characteristic to mull flora, like Salvia glutinosa, Cardamine glanduligera, Pulmonaria rubra, Allium ursinum, Rubus hirtus, Festuca altissima, Luzula luzuloides, and Vaccinium ssp.

The biomass production is about 9 t/year/ha.

3.6.2.      The quality and vegetation condition of the stands

According to the regulations, the action of cleaning of forests is organized and carried out as to constantly ensure appropriate phytosanitary condition.

It is required as a mandatory permanent task the organization and removal of all wood materials that could adversely affect the phytosanitary condition of the forest.

3.6.3.      Forest composition

The stand, as a storey of trees, represents the predominant feature of the forest as biosystem and is the main objective in conducting the forests toward maximum efficiency.

The most widespread forest formation is the pure spruce stand (Piceetea), followed by spruce-beech forests (Piceeto-Fageta).

Regarding the composition of the stands, the distribution is as follows:

83Mo7Br9 F a1Div.

3.6.4.      Structure by age class

Age class structure:

The area occupied

Age class

TOTAL

I

II - IV

V

VI

VII

1-20

21-80

81-100

101-120

> 120

Ha

1280.53

8597.88

5670.94

2561.07

182.96

18293.38

%

7

47

31

14

1

100

 

3.7.   Basis of forest management

3.7.1.      Regime

Taking into account the economical objectives, the current condition and structure, the stands are managed according to the high-forest system, which ensures the regeneration of the forests, both natural (seeds) and artificial (actual afforestation), given the majority species and the existent stationary conditions

3.7.2.      Treatment

Based on the existing formations and the functional type, the following treatments for production stands can be set:

-       clear cutting in small plots and clear cutting in alternative strips for spruce forests

-       group shelterwood system, in mixes of spruce and fir, where regeneration period lasts 20 to 30 years

-       conservation cutting and sanitary cutting, practiced in protection stands

3.7.3.      Exploitability

Technical exploitability was adopted for production stands, this ensuring the achievement of large wood assortments.

The age for technical exploitability is achieved around 105 years.

For stands of group I, exploitability for protection was adopted, which corresponds to the moment when the protective effects start to decline.

3.7.4.      Production cycles

Production cycles are set only for the stands with production functions, taking into account:

-       the formations and forestry species that form the forest;

-       average age of technical exploitability;

-       productivity and the current state of mixtures;

-       the socio-economic functions set.

Based on the above criteria, a cycle of 110 years is considered appropriate, both economically and environmentally.

3.7.5.      Allowable cut

All surfaces managed have active management arrangements, and based on these management plans, the forest owners of Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni have a harvest index of main products of approx. 5 m3/year/ha,  and a harvest index of secondary products of approx. 1 m3/year/ha.

  1. Description of the areas excluded from harvesting

According to the socio-economic and environmental objectives mentioned above, the stand functions are set, in accordance with the technical norms in force.

Stands in the area managed mainly have the following types of functional category:

a)      Forests with special protection functions located in sites with harsh ecological conditions, and stands where wood harvesting is not possible or allowed, imposing only special conservation works (T II) - approx. 5% of the total area managed subject to FSC certification

b)      Forests with special protection functions where is permitted, in addition to selection system, other treatments, imposing some special restrictions (T IV)

c)      Forests with production and protection functions, where the whole range of forestry operations can be applied (T VI)

To achieve the established objectives, the stands must be managed by applying appropriate management measures. For this, two management units were formed, namely:

- SUP "A" - Regular high forest - common types (wood and construction timber);

- SUP "M" - Special Conservation (conservation goals).

 

Map of the forests in the protected areas category, excluded from commercial cuts representing 5% of the certified forest area

 

.................................................. .........

 

 

 

Map of the forests with biodiversity conservation as a major objective representing 10% of the certified forest area

 

.................................................. ...................

 


              Most trees stands are part of the functional group II (forests with production and protection functions), but through management plans increased attention was given to the inclusion of the stands also in functional group I (forests with special protection functions).

 

  1. Timber resource inventory on which harvesting is planned on

The managed areas contain pure stands (mostly spruce) and mixed spruce stands (with beech, fir, sycamore, etc.).

Depending on the composition of the stands, the amount of wood accumulating in a given area varies.

Given the stationary conditions, the average age of the species, average production class, etc., the following average amounts of wood can be define per hectare by species:

              - Spruce: 458 m³/ha,

              - Beech: 271 m³/ha,

              - Fir: 569 m³/ha,

              - Larch: 174 m³/ha,

              - Sycamore 109 m³/ha.

 

  1. Description of the land use and ownership status

 

Type of  functional class

Functional categories

Management goal

Surface

%

T II

Forests with special protection functions located in sites with harsh ecological conditions, and stands where wood harvesting is not possible or allowed, imposing only special conservation works

1.2.a

1.2.a

1.3.f

1.4.

1.5.I

Conservation goals

6

T IV

Forests with special protection functions where is permitted, in addition to selection system, other treatments, imposing some special restrictions

1.5.M

Wood and  construction timber

52

T VI

Forests with production and protection functions, where the whole range of forestry operations can be applied

2.1.b

Wood and  construction timber

42

TOTAL

-

-

100

 

 

for crops

Crt.

Symbol

Use Category forest

Surface (%)

 

 
   

1

P

Total forest fund

100

 

 

1.1

PD

Land covered by forest

99

 

 

1.2

PC

Lands that are

 

needed

-

 

 

1.3

PS

Lands that are needed for forest production

< 1%

   

1.4

PA

Land serving the needs of forest administration

< 1%

 

 

1.5

PI

Land affected by afforestation

< 1%

 

 

1.6

PN

Unproductive lands

< 1%

 

 

1.7

PT

Land temporarily removed from the forest and not received

-

 

 

1.8

PO

Occupations and litigation

-

 

 

 

From the table above, it appears that over 99% of forest area is covered by forest. In this context one can speak of an efficient use of the forest.

Regarding the ownership status, the forest areas belong to private legal persons, associative forms, territorial-administrative units, religious and educational establishments.

 

  1. Description of adjacent land use

Adjacent lands, surrounding the forest areas have the following use:

-       Land covered by forest

-       Pasture lands or afforested pasture lands

-       Meadows and other agricultural lands

 

  1. Management prescriptions and procedures

Responsible stands management will be achieved by execution of the forestry operations, sanitary cutting, properly applied. The main aim of the management works is the maintenance of the functional capacity of these stands.

Forestry works encompass a wide range of works, from creating valuable cores of value species regeneration, by maintaining and managing newly established stands, by extracting trees affected by biotic or abiotic factors, by applying treatments where mature stand will be extracted. All are essential to be applied at the right time and appropriately for sustainable forest management in the long term.

To achieve stands stability and better conditions in relation to the aims pursued optimal solution must be adopted in relation to the development phases of the stands.

Natural conditions and socio-economic requirements impose that stands be driven to diversified structures, relatively even aged trees and relatively uneven aged trees, as close to natural ones, capable of performing multiple functions of protection and production.

 

  1. Harvest rate and species selection

            Stands which are to be harvested in the first 10 years are: pure spruce stands (56%), mixed coniferous and beech stands (14%), mixtures of spruce-beech stands (14%), spruce-fir stands (8%) and pure mountain beech forests (8%). Harvesting will be done by progressive cutting, conservation cuttings, and clear cuttings on small plots or adjacent bands.

Main product harvesting rates by species (representative species) per year compared to the area are:

- Spruce: approx. 28 m3/year/ha,

- Beech: approx. 3.5 m3/year/ha,

- Fir: approx. 2.3 m3/year/ha,

- Larch: less than 1 m3/year/ha,

- Pine: less than 1 m3/year/ha.

 

  1. Procedures for monitoring forest regeneration and growth

Biomass accumulation of the forest is greatly influenced by the stationary conditions, weather factors, and also by the development stages of the stands. Considering these factors, on the land managed by the Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni there were set the following growth indicators, for the most representative species:

              - Spruce: 5.3 m3/year/ha,

              - Beech: 3.5 m3/year/ha,

              - Fir: 6, 2 m3/year/ha,

              - Larch: 5.8 m3/year/ha,

              - Sycamore: 2.7 m3/year/ha.

 

  1. Environmental protection measures

On the areas managed by Forestry Administration of Gheorgheni, environmental measures are established in relation to the functional category of the forest or to the type of activity that takes place on that land.

Given the fact that part of land management are included in the Natura 2000 network or in other categories of protected areas, this involves a series of rules to be implemented in order to protect environment (stations, certain species, etc.).

Regarding environmental protection from various field activities the following are worth reminding:

-       during the harvesting process, the remaining standing trees are protected by applying some protective material around them. For protecting the routes for removing the trees, poles are used to margin the routes.

-       during the forestry operations (afforestation, weeding, cleaning, etc) are taken into account: proper storage of lubricants, keeping the working site clean, etc.

 

  1. Map of forestry resources and protected areas

 

 








































GALLERY | GIS MAP | USEFUL LINKS | CONTACT

This site was developed with the financial support of the Ministry of Communications and Information Society through the "Knowledge Based Economy" project.
”Pentru informaţii detaliate despre celelalte programe cofinanţate de Uniunea Europeană, vă invităm să vizitaţi www.fonduri-ue.ro”.